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Vol 1, No 1 (2020)


The Importance of the Application of the Discount Matrix as a Transactional Analysis Motivational Model in Social Practice [5]
ALEKSANDRA ĐURIĆ,Belgrade Academy for business and art vocational studies, Belgrade
KRISTINA BRAJOVIĆ CAR.Faculty of Media and Communication, Singidunum University, Belgrade
JELENA BAJIĆ, High Vocational School for Communication, Belgrade

ABSTRACT: Transactional Analysis (TA), in addition to offering a philosophical view on people and their relationships as a basis of a unique theory of personality and development forming a part of a psychotherapeutic approach, provides concrete models for solving almost all aspects of problems related to interpersonal relationships and business communication. This paper aims to show how the discount model of Transactional Analysis can be an effective way of solving problems, boosting motivation and improving communication in business environment. The initial assumption of the research is that, in business environment, the most often discounting is located on diagonal T3 of the discount matrix, which implies dismissing options, significance of problems and changeability of stimuli; or on diagonal T4 of the discount matrix implying discounting significance of options, solvability of problems, and person’s ability to react differently to stimuli. The method used for collecting data was a survey, while the respondents were Serbian professionals chosen by random sampling in the space of one month. This research could be translated into practical application as the theoretical and graphic representations of the discount matrix model offer clear, precise and systematic knowledge and indications of the practical skills needed across all areas of social and public life (psychotherapy, counseling, health, education, mediation, social work, organizational culture etc.). Above all, it promotes the competences necessary for the 21st century regarding raising the awareness of the choices we make in communication, deepening the understanding of human motivation, alleviating the negative effects of criticism and working towards a more efficient decision-making, problem solving and conflict resolution models in business practice.

KEYWORDS: Communication, Motivation, Transactional Analysis, Discount, Discount Matrix


Snowball Networking: Making Security Cooperation More Effective Through Personal Communication [19]
ELIZA-MARIA MARKLEY,Georgia Institute of Technology

VOLKER FRANKE,Kennesaw State University

ABSTRACT. Today’s security cooperation that requires fast, effective and secure sharing of information across national borders and agency bureaucracies increasingly emphasizes the role of networks. This paper introduces the concept of snowball networking – developing security professional networks through personal recommendations – and explores specific factors of international security policy education (ISPE) that lead to building, utilizing and expanding professional networks in the field of international security. Based on a survey administered to alumni of the George C. Marshal European Center of Security Studies (MC) in Germany, the research found that trust in classmates, hierarchical standing, education level, and duration of ISPE engagement were the key determinants for the development and utilization of professional networks. Additionally, MC alumni who, upon graduation, maintained personal communication with classmates were inclined to engage in snowball networking and to build new contacts with heretofore unknown members of the MC network.

Externalizing and Internalizing Problems of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders [35]
ILYA FEDOTOV, Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia
ALEXANDRA SOLOVYOVA, Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia
VICTORIA KSENOFONTOVA,Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia
LUDMILA KRUPSKAYA, Ryazan State Medical University, Ryazan, Russia

ABSTRACT. In addition to the main symptoms, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience other emotional and behavioral problems. These problems significantly reduce the quality of life of people with ASD and increase social isolation, as well as hinder both individual and group correctional work. In addition, they are the main reason for seeking medical care, with subsequent hospitalization and prescription of antipsychotic drugs, and they dramatically worsen the quality of life of their families in general. That is why, in a number of cases, the key problem in the work of different specialists working with families raising children with ASD is the concomitant symptoms. This underscores the urgency and need to systematize and generalize theoretical ideas about etiology and pathogenesis. Model of concomitant emotional and behavioral problems has a complex structure based on some neurophysiological disorders, and the family is the social environment in which the destructive pattern is realized and perpetuated. Probably, a more detailed study of the patterns of parental behavior, the construction of child-parental relations and upbringing models, as participants in the development and maintenance of concomitant disorders of children with ASD, can be an effective point of application for intervention.

KEYWORDS: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, internalizing problems, problems of externalizing behavior, behavioral problems, child-parental relations, deviant behavior.


Predicting work performance and professional satisfaction through different types of motivation and self-esteem [45]
BIANCA PELTEA, Spiru Haret University, Bucharest

ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was to explore an alternative relationship between motivation and self-esteem regarding their prediction power of work performance and professional satisfaction. In contrast to the dominating view that intrinsic motivation is the main type of motivation that leads to increased levels of work performance, we developed a hypothesis proposing that intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between identified regulation and work performance, thus showing that motivation by identification is the first in terms of prediction and opportunity of intervention. By a cross-sectional survey among 120 employees from different finance and industry organizations, it has been proven that intrinsic motivation and identification motivation add positive predictive power of job satisfaction beyond the negative predictive power of age and competence. Furthermore, identified regulation has been shown to be predicted by an interaction between gender and the educational level. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

KEYWORDS: work performance, professional satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identification motivation, self-esteem.


Transgenerational Psychotherapy. A New Approach in Psychotherapy [57]
CRISTINA SCHMIDT,International Center for Psychogenealogy,University of Bucharest

ABSTRACT. The new discoveries in neuroscience, genetics and epigenetics, medicine, statistics and psychology bring up information that explains the origin and manifestation of traumatic events (and not only); this information supports the formulation of both theoretical and conceptual approaches and working tools which results can be evaluated from the biological to the psychological - behavioral levels. Traumatic events in someone’s genealogy are sometimes the source of symptoms, manifestations or events that do not have stimulus-response or event-consequence explanations in their individual histories. The intervention through tools that are specific to transgenerational therapy has brought about significant results both emotionally and behaviorally, leading in many cases to profoundly transformational processes.

KEYWORDS: transgenerational psychotherapy, psychogenealogy, intergenerational trauma, transgenerational trauma, symptom.

Inclusion between desideratum and reality [65]
SIMONA MARICA,Spiru Haret University, Bucharest
IOANA LAURA GIURISICI,Psychologist, FARA Foundation

ABSTRACT. After 1990, Romania started the processes for granting the right to equal education and adapted to all children, regardless of their material, physical or mental condition, their belonging to a certain ethnicity or religion. Currently, inclusion in mass education has become desideratum at national and international levels, being promoted both at legislative and media level. In this context, we investigated the extent to which reality meets expectations, whether mainstream schools are prepared to receive and meet the needs of children with special educational needs and whether the key actors in implementing inclusion – teaching staff, are in a position to accept and to make the change, from the teaching methods to the attitude toward children with special educational needs. Moreover, we wanted to identify the extent to which inclusion in regular public schools is, in the opinion of the teaching staff, a viable alternative, and possibly a superior one to these children’s education. The research focused on the access of teaching staff to information, trainings, as well as the adopted educational methods, their sense and attitude towards the opportunity of inclusion, as well as the experience of inclusion as it was experienced by the families of children with special needs. The research methodology entailed documents analysis, interviews and questionnaires investigation. Briefly, the results of the research show that the Romanian school system is currently unequipped for inclusion, starting within sufficient material and human resources up to the attitude of the teaching staff in the system.

KEYWORDS: inclusion, special educational needs, mass education, special education

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