The Influence of Education and Training on Productive Skills, Nature of Work and Gender Inequality



The present paper is a synthesis of researching the evolution of gender discrimination during 2002-2013, i.e. the inclusion of women in the three levels of the national education system and the effects of education materialized in the degree of female population insertion on the labour market at national and European level.

In order to grasp the still existing gender stereotypy and discrimination, it was necessary to analyze the evolution of the share of female population included in the three levels of the national education system (primary (elementary), secondary (lower and upper secondary) and tertiary (university), the correlation of the level of preparation of those graduating these three levels of the national education system with the branch structure of the employed population, respectively with the level of the average earnings (annual or monthly), at-risk-of-poverty rate by poverty threshold and education level, the identification of gender discrimination determined by gender role and gender wage disparity.




gender discrimination, gender stereotypy, education attainment, activity rate, employment rate, at-risk-poverty rate.

Full Text:



Schultz Paul, T., “Investment in the Schooling and Health of Women and Men; Quantities and Returns”, Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper (702), Yale University, 1993.

Behrman, J. R., Mothers Schooling and Child Education, 1997, Mimeo, University of Pennsylvania, PA.

Birdsall, Nancy, Ruth Levine, and Amina Ibrahim, “Towards Universal Primary Education: Investments, Incentives, and Institutions,” European Journal of Education 40, no. 3 (2005): 337-349.

Boserup, E., Womens Role in Economic Development, 1970, London, St. Martin’s Press.

Chaaban, Jad, Cunningham Wendy, Measuring the Economic Gain of Investing in Girls: the Girl Effect Dividend, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2011.

Corleto Buquet, Ana, Cooper Jennifer A., Loredo Rodriguez Hilda, Sistema de indicadores para la equidad de género en instituciones de educación superior, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, 2010.

Dollar, David, Gatti, Roberta, Gender Inequality, Income, and Growth: Are Good Times Good for Women?, Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1999.

Fuchs G., Füller E., Lask S., Zahlen? Bitte. Gleichstellungsbüro Basel-Stadt, Basel, 2004.

Hanushek, Eric, “Schooling, Gender Equity, and Economic Outcomes.” In Girls’ Education in the 21st Century: Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth, Washington DC: World Bank, 2008. 23-40.

Kabeer, Naila, “Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal,” Gender & Development 13, no. 1 (2005): 13-24.

Kimmel, Michael S., Aronson, Amy, The Gendered Society Reader, New York: Oxford UP, 2011.

King, Elizabeth M., Hill, Anne M., Women’s Education in Developing Countries Barriers, Benefits, and Policies, Baltimore. Volume edited for the World Bank, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Klasen. Stephan. “Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development,” The World Bank Economic Review, 16, no. 3 (2002): 345-373.

Levine, Ruth, Lloyd, Cynthia, Greene, Margaret, Grown, Caren, Girls Count: a Global Investment & Action Agenda, Washington, DC: Center for Global Development, 2008.

Moretti, Enrico, “Estimating the social return to higher education: evidence from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data,” Journal of Econometrics, 121, 2004, p. 175-212.

Nussbaum, Martha, Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Patrinos, Harry, “Returns to Education: The Gender Perspective,” in Girls’ Education in the 21st Century: Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth. Washington DC: World Bank, 2008. 53-66.

Psacharopoulos, George, Patrinos, Anthony Harry, “Returns to Investment in Education: A Further Update,” Education Economics 12, no. 2 (2004): 111-134.

Schultz, Paul T., Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls, New Haven, CT: Economic Growth Center, Yale University, 2001.

Schultz, T. P., “Human Capital and Development”, in Peters, G. H. et al. (Eds.), Agricultural Competitiveness, 22nd International Conference of Agricultural, Economics, Aldershot, England, Dartmouth, 1995.

Schultz Paul, T., “Investment in the Schooling and Health of Women and Men; Quantities and Returns”, Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper (702), Yale University, 1993.

Sen, Purna, “Enhancing Women's Choices in Responding to Domestic Violence in Calcutta: A Comparison of Employment and Education”, The European Journal of Development Research 11, no. 2 (1999): 65-86.

* * * “Raport de cercetare privind discriminarea de gen în piaţa muncii”, Proiect POSDRU: ESTHR – pachet integrat de acţiuni pentru dezvoltarea rolului femeii în societatea românească, Blocul Naţional Sindical, 2009.

* * * Diferenţele bazate pe gen în ceea ce priveşte profesiile, cariera şi veniturile, elaborat în cadrul Proiectului POSDRU ProFeminAntrep Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, Bucureşti, 2011.

* * * EU Gender Equality Law, European Communities, 2008.

* * * Eurostat, policy_equality/education_training

* * * Gender-based segregation in terms of female occupation of some lower positions on the labour market - Segregarea bazată pe gen din perspectiva ocupării de către femei a unor poziţii inferioare pe piaţa muncii, Proiect PROFEMIN/POSDRU/ 144/6.3/S126567.

* * * GHID pentru promovarea egalităţii între femei şi bărbaţi pe piaţa muncii, Proiect POSDRU, ANOFM.

* * * Legea nr. 202/2002 privind egalitatea de şanse dintre femei şi bărbaţi, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 301, 8 mai 2002.

* * * Studiu privind segregarea de gen pe piaţa muncii, elaborat în cadrul Proiectului POSDRU ProFeminAntrep, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, Bucureşti, 2012.

* * * The Current Situation of Gender Equality in Romania – Country Profile, Romania, Comisia Europeană, 2012.

* * * The Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Situation of Women and Men and on Gender Equality Policies”, European Commission, December, 2012. education_training


Copyright (c) 2016 author

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

As to respect GDPR, this site do not allow free registation. Please contact us at:

GDPR Policy:

Please read the statement below:
Processing of personal data and free movement of these data

Registering with this site the author agree with the collection, processing and use of his personal data, exclusively within the ASHUES journal.




To crown and encourage research efforts of the authors, at the end of a year of publishing our journal board will award online the best papers by distinctions:

1. Best Original Paper Award -  for the paper that has brought something completely new in the reader's attention (a new concept, a new trend, a new proposal in research, etc.)

2. Excellence Award - for the most cited paper and visualized in the online environment during the year

3. First, Second and Third Award- for the best documented and substantiated papers during the year

4. Special Award - to award PhD students and postdocs for the most well documented and substantiated paper